Turn address strings into gps coordinates for free with google

I’ve recently wanted to geocode a large number of addresses (think circa 60k) in Ireland as part of a visualisation of the Irish property market. Geocoding can be simply achieved in R using the geocode() function from the ggmap library. The geocode function uses Googles Geocoding API to turn addresses from text to latitude and longitude pairs very simply.

There is a usage limit on the geocoding service for free users of 2,500 addresses per IP address per day. This hard limit cannot be overcome without employing new a IP address, or paying for a business account. To ease the pain of starting an R process every 2,500 addresses / day, I’ve built the a script that geocodes addresses up the the API query limit every day with a few handy features:

  • Once it hits the geocoding limit, it patiently waits for Google’s servers to let it proceed.
  • The script pings Google once per hour during the down time to start geocoding again as soon as possible.
  • A temporary file containing the current data state is maintained during the process. Should the script be interrupted, it will start again from the place it left off once any problems with the data /connection has been rectified.
points in dublin

The R script assumes that you are starting with a database that is contained in a single *.csv file, “input.csv”, where the addresses are contained in the “address” column. Feel free to use/modify to suit your own devices!

Comments are included where possible:

Let me know if you find a use for the script, or if you have any suggestions for improvements.

Please be aware that it is against the Google Geocoding API terms of service to geocode addresses without displaying them on a Google map. Please see the terms of service for more details on usage restrictions.

    • Hi, Do You happen to know how should I change that script to take into account that some of my records do not have addresses with house number… just street name. right now it geocodes just addresses with numbers, when there is a record with just street name I ve got NA

  1. I’ve been using this code and would love to discuss it a little more in-depth. I recently used it to code ~6100 records. Unfortunately, I couldn’t get the geocoding process to start up again once I hit the 2500 limit. I also found one bug – when the code stores the index to restart the geocoding process, it repeats the index. (Example: code runs through 1180 and pauses. I re-run the code, and it picks up at 1180, repeating the data pull for that index.) Can we discuss sometime soon? Thanks!

    • Hey Lisa, I’m glad you found the code useful! Strange how the geocoding process wouldn’t start again – was it timing out or reporting a limit from the Google servers? Good catch on the bug – to be honest I was being lazy not completely fixing that one up – leads to a few repeats in the data!

  2. Hi again – it said “over query limit” and timed out for another hour (after I had already waited an hour). Any suggestions on a fix, or is this another issue do you think? Thanks!

  3. Hi Shane
    Nice code – am hitting slight hitch. At the R prompt if I type
    > str1 = “9 Abbey Street Lower Dublin 1”
    > geocode(str1)
    I get the ‘correct’ lon lat -6.249584 53.35223
    However, if I use this script pointing to the same address in input.csv it gives me lat lon for somewhere in the midlands. Any suggestions?

    • Heya Rowan, Thanks for the comment. To be honest, I dont have an answer for your question. The script simply uses the “geocode” function from ggmap to get the coordinates, so I dont know why the answer would be different. Is this possibly some sort of versioning issue? Can you recreate the issue every time? And is it just that address? The only thing i can think of is that the script appends “Ireland” to the end of the address to increase accuracy – perhaps its throwing things off track on this occasion – can you try again after editing line 13?

  4. Dear Shane,
    Many thanks for your R-code – it works perfectly – I used it for geocoding “Asing Prices” retrieved from teh web for the Real Estate Market in Austria (PhD). I use a lookup-table to avoid double geocoding of the same addess.
    many thansk again Gerhard

    • Good to hear Ger. Glad it was helpful. I was meaning to implement a lookup table for this same reason. Doing something similar now in Javascript which i may put online shortly!

  5. On line 77 – you have data$long <- geocoded$lat when it should say geocoded$long –

    Easy fix!! Thanks for the great code!

  6. Hi,
    I’m a fresh student of R, so I’m discovering how everythig works. I have a silly doubt.
    # get the input data:
    infile <- "input"
    data <- read.csv(paste0('./', infile, '.csv'))
    I should input my data normally as:
    infile<- read.csv("C:/Users/University/Project/Local.csv", sep=";")
    and then run the rest normaly? I'm doing that and I receive this warning "Error in file(file, "rt") : invalid 'description' argument"

    Thank you for your help!

  7. Hi Shane, firstly thanks for sharing your code.
    I’m having problems when the query limit gets over. The function gets in a infinite loop in the “while”, because even after 24 hours, when it uses the geocode() to the same interaction of the ‘for’ (address), the status don’t changes. I really don’t know why, but I thing it’s because the geocode() is “using stored information”. Do you have any suggestion?

  8. Nice code, thanks.
    I had same issue as Rowan, restarting and ending up with a larger vector that couldn’t be appended to original data. My workaround was to delete the temp file before restarting the process. Geocoding address is stored with workspace, so it doesn’t request it again from Google server (assuming you save workspace).
    A slightly better solution is to comment out the temp file save and read.
    And even better solution would be to delete the last row of the temp file and start from there?

  9. Just to add a small piece of related info on what Mark and Rowan wondered:
    Personally I didn’t find a function to force a “fresh” geocode -without workspace deletion. So Q:”What if I won’t delete my workspace (or create new) and I want to force a fresh geocode?”
    A:ggmap stores locations on .GeocodedInformation on the workspace and
    rm(.GeocodedInformation) can be used to remove them. After that obviously new/fresh geocode can be initated.

    • Thanks Sam and Mark – good points. I’ll put the code up on github, and if you have made changes that fix that bug – might be good to push changes up! Might be possible to force geocode() to not use the cached information.

  10. Hey Shane, thank you for the great code.
    I get the error message “Error in geo_reply$status : $ operator is invalid for atomic vectors” when I get to running the code with my own data. Has this come up before?
    Thank you!

  11. Hey Hi Shane,
    Thank you so much for your code.
    I’m doing a project and wanted to get the Lat/Longs for sone streets to make my project more meaningful.
    I tried the code but i keep getting an error is.character(location) – my address(ii) value is all string. I can’t fathom what is the cause – though I suspect the data. Appreciate if I could share my screen shot with you for some suggestions.

  12. Hey, just tried something which seems to run but the output does lack the Lat/Long. Line 72 modified to :
    result = getGeoDetails(as.character(substitute(addresses[ii]))). Sorry for the multiple messages.

  13. Shane,

    Thanks for the code. I have been using it quite a bit recently. I do have one question though. I have quite a few addresses to geocode and I’m wondering if you know how to set up the code so that I can go over the 2500 limit per day. I have signed up with Google to do this and created a project but I don’t know how to implement it in the code I have (i.e. your code). I don’t mind paying a few dollars to complete my list of addresses but I just can’t see how to do it. Any ideas?

    Many thanks,

    • Hi Barry, thanks for getting in touch. Glad the code is useful. I actually don’t think that the R library “ggmap” that is used here allows you to specify the API key for quota usage on Google. (which is a shame). You might want to look at using Google Fusion Tables to upload your data and geocode from there – for simplicity. I’m also uploading shortly a Python equivalent for this code which will be a handy alternative! Hope this helps.

  14. Hi Shane,

    thanks for sharing the code with us. Workls like a bless, even though im missing the possibility to add a API Key within the ggmap package. But this has nothing to do with your code. In Case someone wants to transform german adresses, one small hint:

    You need to encode into UTF-8 before passing it into the function, just add the function enc2utf8 in line 66 and it workls like a charm.

    line 66: result = getGeoDetails(enc2utf8(addresses[ii]))

  15. Hi, Thanks for this code and it helps a lot with my project, I actually have an error when running the script,

    “Working on index 93 of 953”
    contacting http://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=T8W5J8%20%20%20%20,%20CANADA&sensor=false….Information from URL : http://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=T8W5J8%20%20%20%20,%20CANADA&sensor=false
    Error in geo_reply$status : $ operator is invalid for atomic vectors
    In addition: Warning messages:
    1: In readLines(connect, warn = FALSE) :
    InternetOpenUrl failed: ‘A connection with the server could not be established’
    2: In geocode(address, output = “all”, messaging = TRUE, override_limit = TRUE) :
    geocoding failed for “T8W5J8 , CANADA”.
    if accompanied by 500 Internal Server Error with using dsk, try google.

    Do you know how can I solve this problem? Thanks for your help!!!!!

  16. Thank you for the code! What changes I should make to your code, if I don’t want to bypass the API limit, and allow R to collect the geocodes for several days? Thanks!!!

  17. Hi Sophie, great that you found it useful. Weirdly, the ggmap library does not allow you to actually insert an API key and use the system without limits. I’m in the middle of a post of how to do this with python. If you’d like to use a key, I would advise building a URL request with the geocode url, and your key at the end. The response will be very similar. Have a look at: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/34402979/increase-the-api-limit-in-ggmaps-geocode-function-in-r

  18. Thank you for the code, Shane. I am a novice in R, and hence, my question below may appear less intelligent; I apologize in advance.

    I am trying to convert 8,615 U.S. addresses to their latitude and longitude. Interestingly, at index 2694, Google Maps API encounters a bad request and reports the error mentioned below.

    Question: I expected “address” dataframe to have been populated with the correct values till index 2693, but the dataframes does not seem to have been created. Can you please tell me where I have gone wrong? Thanks, Shane.

    [1] “Working on index 2694 of 8615”
    contacting http://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=#2050N%201620%2026th%20Street%20Santa%20Monica%20CA%2090404,%20USA&sensor=false…query max exceeded, see ?geocode. current total = 2559
    .Information from URL : http://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=#2050N%201620%2026th%20Street%20Santa%20Monica%20CA%2090404,%20USA&sensor=false
    Error in geo_reply$status : $ operator is invalid for atomic vectors
    In addition: Warning messages:
    1: In readLines(connect, warn = FALSE) :
    cannot open: HTTP status was ‘400 Bad Request’
    2: In geocode(address, output = “all”, messaging = TRUE, override_limit = TRUE) :
    geocoding failed for “#2050N 1620 26th Street Santa Monica CA 90404, USA”.
    if accompanied by 500 Internal Server Error with using dsk, try google.

    • Glad you got sorted Vivek. If you’re doing this sort of work I’d also recommending looking at the Python version that I’ve recently posted for polling the Google API. Best of luck!

  19. Hey Shane!

    Im using your awesome code but for some reason I’m having this Error back from R:
    I made sure that ggmap is well installed, but nothing.

    [1] “Working on index 1 of 2496”
    Error in getGeoDetails(address[ii]) : could not find function “geocode”

    any idea what could have been wrong?

  20. I can’t get the code to work at all…..from
    infile <- "input"
    data <- read.csv(paste0('./', infile, '.csv'))
    that i get a warning saying error in / in paste0.

    As a layman of codes, does this work with street address in a csv? what change should i make to the following part to get it work with my csv file?
    #define a function that will process googles server responses for us.
    getGeoDetails <- function(address){   
       #use the gecode function to query google servers
       geo_reply = geocode(address, output='all', messaging=TRUE, override_limit=TRUE)
       #now extract the bits that we need from the returned list
       answer <- data.frame(lat=NA, long=NA, accuracy=NA, formatted_address=NA, address_type=NA, status=NA)
       answer$status <- geo_reply$status
    i only have 1800 entries so i guess the later parts aren't really relevant.

    • Hi Naiyu, yes the program should work with addresses in a CSV file. You’ll need to have a look at your input file format here, I’m not sure what the error is. If you need a quick job, have a look at fusion tables from Google as an alternative for geocoding.

  21. Hi Ann – whats the error that you are getting? Have you got your csv file in the same place as your R script? And finally have you set the “working directory” of R to the same directory.

    As a another try – change read.csv(paste0(‘./’, infield, ‘.csv’)) to just read.csv(paste0(infield, ‘.csv’))

    Hope this works!

  22. Hi Shane, thanks for this highly useful code. How do rows of your input file look like? I mean how is the address typed in each row? I need to add state in US after the primary address; for example primary address is “abcd high school”, followed by Oklahoma, US. Could you please help me out here.

    • The address can be just a string column in the csv file. So something like:

      id, address, other_column
      0, “Test Address, Test Town, State”, “other value”
      1, “Test Address2, Test Town2, State”, “other value”

      Doest that make sense? You can use paste() to add a state at the end if you have it in another column etc.

  23. The address can be just a string column in the csv file. So something like:

    id, address, other_column
    0, “Test Address, Test Town, State”, “other value”
    1, “Test Address2, Test Town2, State”, “other value”

    Doest that make sense? You can use paste() to add a state at the end if you have it in another column etc.

  24. Here is the error – Error in gzfile(file, mode) : cannot open the connection
    In addition: Warning message:
    In gzfile(file, mode) :
    cannot open compressed file ‘../data/C:/Users/*******/Documents/April 2017/Addresses.csv_geocoded.rds’, probable reason ‘Invalid argument’

    As a beginner, I find the error to be confusing and unclear. I followed your script without any changes and created my own csv file for testing purposes. All went well until I neared the end, unfortunately. Maybe the script should not be ran exactly as shown or maybe I am missing an important part of the instructions. Advice and suggestions are welcome.

  25. Hi Shanelynn,

    Thank you for the script, it has been very helpful for the purposes of my project. I noticed above in the comments that someone spotted the error on line 77 and it is now correct here. However, I accessed the script from Rbloggers here and the error is still there. I wanted to let you know in case you had any control over fixing the error on Rbloggers as well. Thank you!

  26. Hello,

    I am getting an error when I run line 63 – 73 which says

    “Error in if (location == “”) return(failedGeocodeReturn(output)) :
    missing value where TRUE/FALSE needed

    Thoughts? Ideas? Fixes?


  27. Hi 🙂 I noticed many people mentioning the repeating of addresses when it continues from index – would simply adding a +1 to the condition not work? Like this:

    if (file.exists(tempfilename)){
    print(“Found temp file – resuming from index”)
    geocoded <- readRDS(tempfilename)
    startindex <- nrow(geocoded)+1

    I tried it and seems to work for me but maybe Im missing something :/

  28. Hi, Shane, thanks for your amazing code. Super helpful.
    My dummy question about tempfilename. I should use any, I suppose. But in which format should I save?


  29. Hi Shane,

    Thanks for the code! I have a couple of questions, but I’m brand new to programming, so forgive my ignorance.

    1) I have received the following error: “Error in data$Address (from DB_Geocode_trial1) : object of type ‘closure’ is not subsettable”. What is this? And how do I fix it?

    2) I am working on a water-related project in which I need to find coordinates for “Habitations” (similar to a village) in India. In other words, I don’t have street names. Is this code meant to accomplish a task like this? If not, do you have any ideas for how I can modify it?

    Sorry that I have so many questions. I appreciate any and all assistance!

    Thanks in advance,


    • Hi Brooke. It sounds like your data didn’t read in correctly for the first error – make sure your CSV file is correctly formatted, and the data shows up correctly if you run “head(data)”. For the water project, the geocoder from google should work fine with areas rather than street addresses, as long as those habitations are marked on Google. To help it along, you can add “India” to the end of the geocoding string.

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